Here is another problem from Presh Talwalkar which he says is adapted from India’s Civil Services Exam.
“There are three runners X, Y, and Z. Each runs with a different uniform speed in a 1000 meters race. If X gives Y a start of 50 meters, they will finish the race at the same time. If X gives Z a start of 69 meters, they will finish the race at the same time. Suppose Y and Z are in a [1000 meter] race. How much of a start should Y give to Z so they would finish the race at the same time?”
Even though Talwalkar’s original graphic showed all the runners in a 1000 meter race, it was not immediately clear to me from the wording that the race between Y and Z was also 1000 meters. But that was the case, so I made it explicit.
See the Three Runners Puzzle