The following puzzle is from the Irishman Owen O’Shea.
“The figure shows the location of three flags [at A, B, and C] in one of the fields on a neighbor’s farm. The angle ABC is a right angle. Flag A is 40 yards from Flag B. Flag B is 120 yards from flag C. Thus, if one was to walk from A to B and then on to C, one would walk a total of 160 yards.
Now there is a point, marked by flag D, [directly] to the left of flag A. Curiously, if one were to walk from flag A to flag D and then diagonally across to flag C, one would walk a total distance of 160 yards.
The question for our puzzlers is this: how far is it from flag D to flag A?”
This problem has a simple solution. But it also suggests a more advanced alternative approach.
See the Distance to Flag Problem