Here is a mind-numbing logic puzzle from Futility Closet.
“A puzzle by H.A. Thurston, from the April 1947 issue of Eureka, the journal of recreational mathematics published at Cambridge University:
Five people make the following statements:—
Which of these statements are true and which false? It will be found on trial that there is only one possibility. Thus, prove or disprove Fermat’s last theorem.”
Normally I would forgo something this complicated, but I thought I would give it a try. I was surprised that I was able to solve it, though it took some tedious work. (Hint: truth tables. See the “Pointing Fingers” post regarding truth tables.)
One important note. The author is a bit cavalier about the use of “Either …, or …”. In common parlance this means “either P is true or Q is true, but not both” (exclusive “or”: XOR), whereas in logic “or” means “either P is true or Q is true, or possibly both” (inclusive “or”: OR). I assumed all “Either …, or …” and “or” expressions were the logical inclusive “or”, which turned out to be the case.
See the Fermat’s Last Theorem Puzzle