This is a slightly challenging problem from Dan Griller.
“Every pupil at the Euler Academy studies French or Spanish. At the start of the year, one third of the French students also studied Spanish, and 2 fifths of the Spanish students also studied French. After one term, six of the double-linguists dropped French, so that now only a quarter of the French students study Spanish. How many pupils are at the Euler Academy?”
Just to be clear, “French students” means Euler Academy pupils studying French, and similarly for “Spanish students.”
See the Language Students Puzzle
Since the changes in Twitter (now X), I have not been able to see the posts, not being a subscriber. But I noticed poking around that some twitter accounts were still viewable. However, like some demented aging octogenarian they had lost track of time, that is, instead of being sorted with the most recent post first, they showed a random scattering of posts from different times. So a current post could be right next to one several years ago. That is what I discovered with the now defunct MathsMonday site. I found a post from 10 May 2021 that I had not seen before, namely,
“The points A and B are on the curve y = x2 such that AOB is a right angle. What points A and B will give the smallest possible area for the triangle AOB?”
See the Pythagorean Parabola Puzzle.
(Update 9/1/2023) Elegant Alternative Solution by Oscar Rojas
This is another puzzle from the Maths Masters team, Burkard Polster (aka Mathologer) and Marty Ross as part of their “Summer Quizzes” offerings.
“A mysterious square has materialized in the middle of the MCG, hovering in mid-air. The heights above the ground of three of its corners are 13, 21 and 34 metres. The fourth corner is higher still. How high?”
See the Floating Square Puzzle
(Update 8/13/2023) Alternative Solution Continue reading
Another puzzle by Presh Talwalkar.
“Thanks to John H. for the suggestion!
A square is inscribed in a quarter circle such that the outer vertices are on the arc of the quarter circle. If the quarter circle has a radius equal to 1, what is the area of the square?
I am told this was given to 7th grade students (ages 12-13), and I think it is a very challenging problem for that age group. In fact I think it is a good problem for any geometry student.”
See the Square in Quarter Circle
This is a problem from the 1987 American Invitational Mathematics Exam (AIME).
“Al walks down to the bottom of an escalator that is moving up and he counts 150 steps. His friend, Bob, walks up to the top of the escalator and counts 75 steps. If Al’s speed of walking (in steps per unit time) is three times Bob’s walking speed, how many steps are visible on the escalator at a given time? (Assume that this value is constant.)”
See the Escalator Puzzle
Puzzles and Problems: AIME, travel puzzles
This is the second part of the problem from Raymond Smullyan in the “Brain Bogglers” section of the 1996 Discover magazine.
“On another occasion, Al made a mixture of water and wine. There was more water than wine—in fact, the excess of water over wine was equal to one-fourth the quantity of wine. Al then added 12 ounces of wine, at which point there was one ounce more of wine than water.
According to another version of the story, before Al added the 12 ounces of wine, he first boiled off 12 ounces of water (the net effect being that he replaced 12 ounces of water with wine), and again there was one more ounce of wine than water.
Would there be more mixture present at the end of the first version or the second?”
I found this statement a tad ambiguous with the result that I found two possible solutions: the one Smullyan gave and another, surprising one.
See Al the Chemist II
This is a relatively simple problem from the inventive Raymond Smullyan in the “Brain Bogglers” section of the 1996 Discover magazine.
“AL THE CHEMIST—not an alchemist, though his name might suggest it—one day partially filled a container with some concoction or other. He knew the volume of fluid in the container, as well as the volume of empty space, and realized that two-thirds of the former was equal to four-fifths of the latter. Was the container then less than half full, more than half full, or exactly half full?”
See Al the Chemist I
This is a nice variation on a racing problem by Geoffrey Mott-Smith from 1954.
“On one side of the playground some of the children were holding foot-races, under a supervisor who handicapped each child according to age and size. In one race, she placed the big boy at the starting line, the little boy a few paces in front of the line, and she gave the little girl twice as much headstart over the little boy as he had over the big boy. The big boy won the race nevertheless. He overtook the little boy in 6 seconds, and the little girl 4 seconds later.
Assuming that all three runners maintained a uniform speed, how long did it take the little boy to overtake the little girl?”
See the Handicap Racing
The June 2023 Carnival of Mathematics # 216 at Eddie’s Math and Calculator Blog has the rather arresting item concerning Peirce’s Law from the American logician Charles Sanders Peirce (1839 – 1914).
“Peirce’s Law: Jon Awbrey of the Inquiry Into Inquiry blog
This article explains Pierce’s Law and provides the proof of the law. The proof is provided in two ways: by reason and graphically. Simply put, for propositions P and Q, the law states:
P must be true if there exists Q such that the statement “if P then Q” is true. In symbols:
(( P ⇒ Q) ⇒ P) ⇒ P
The law is an interesting tongue twister to say the least.”
Perhaps another way of saying it is “if the implication P ⇒ Q implies that P is true, then P must be true.” Still, it sounds weird.
See Peirce’s Law
(Update 6/20/2023) Appendix: Valid Argument Continue reading
The Futility Closet website had the following problem:
“In isosceles triangle ABC, CD = AB and BE is perpendicular to AC. Show that CEB is a 3-4-5 right triangle.”
See a Triangle Puzzle