This is a relatively simple problem from the inventive Raymond Smullyan in the “Brain Bogglers” section of the 1996 Discover magazine.
“AL THE CHEMIST—not an alchemist, though his name might suggest it—one day partially filled a container with some concoction or other. He knew the volume of fluid in the container, as well as the volume of empty space, and realized that two-thirds of the former was equal to four-fifths of the latter. Was the container then less than half full, more than half full, or exactly half full?”
See Al the Chemist I